Reactive-Adaptation – The ability to adapt in response to immediate threats.
Darwin (Marvel) is a superhero that learned about his superpower in a very interesting situation (X-Men: Deadly Genesis #2).
Nemesis Kid (DC) is a supervillain that does not adapt to environments but to single opponents.
Polymath (Avatar) adapts to everything thrown at him by John Dusk in Absolution: Rubicon #4.
The Skindancer has adaptive energy resistance (D&D 3.5 – Monster Manual III).
Next 371) Reality Warping